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Rights and Duties of the Citizen
Constitutional Liberties and Individual Fundamental Rights
The principles of liberty and inviolable human rights permeate the common roots of the eighteenth-century revolutions: the American revolution for the independence of the United States and the French Revolution of 1789. Already in the revolutionary declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen in 1789 the citizen's liberty against the judgment and abuse of authority is guaranteed as a fundamental right: ``men are born and remain free and equal in their rights''.
Human rights have been the object of various solemn international proclamations. Examples such as the ``universal declaration of human rights'' approved by the United Nation's General Assembly on 10 December 1948 and the ``European convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental liberties'' of 1950 may be quoted. To such international declarations Italy has fully adhered, particularly as the principles they contained were already largely enshrined in her Constitution.
In the Italian Constitution liberty is considered as an essential condition for the full development of each person (Article 3) and must be guaranteed both to the individual and groups in the form of an inviolable right.
Limitations on personal liberty must be clearly defined by the law and authorized by the judiciary.
Each constitutional liberty imposes on the citizen an equal duty to protect the law. Hence the right of association carries with it the duty to meet legally and peacefully, also in public places. Freedom of residence, movement and stay provide the citizen with the inviolable choice of home, work and travel both in Italy and abroad.
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