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A word that has no suffixes (in front of the root) or prefixes (after the root) is called the 'root'.
For example: antidisestablishmentarianism, is considered the longest English word (discounting scientific words)
The root is the word 'establish' so it can be broken down thus:
anti - dis - establish - ment - tarian - ism
It means to be against the non establishing of a system of establishment (government)
In the English language, a "prefix" is a particular kind of affix which is prepended before a base word or word stem to add information. For example, with the word "bilingual," the prefix is "bi-" meaning "two," the base word is "lingu" meaning "language," and the suffix is "-al" which transforms the word into a noun within an "event result" context
In grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an affix which is placed at the end of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.
Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes), or lexical information (derivational suffixes). An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence.
see also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antidisestablishmentarianism
The word "antidisestablishmentarianism" itself is often referenced in English-speaking popular culture due to its unusual length of 28 letters and 12 syllables. It is commonly known as the longest word in the English language, excluding coined and technical terms not found in major dictionaries.
Longer words typically have been coined by specific authors in relatively modern times, or are obscure technical names. For example, floccinaucinihilipilification, first used in prose by William Shenstone in 1741, is 29 letters long, but was thought to have been coined as a nonsense word by a single person or small group of students at Eton. It is rumoured that this was intended to mean "to value something at nothing" or to describe a lack of value. Another word specifically coined to be the 'longest word in the English language' is Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious from the song of the same name in the film Mary Poppins. Chlorofluorocarbonation is also a word that is almost as long as antidisestablishmentarianism, meaning, "the act of putting chlorofluorocarbons into the air."
Recently, the 2007 edition of Guinness Book of World Records listed "pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis" as the longest word in the English language. The medical term is a lung disease, caused by the "inhalation of very fine silica dust from volcanoes." The disease may make it harder to breathe, and people with it need to be hooked up to a lung machine (an artificial lung). This too was a purposely coined word, with the explicit intent of being a long word.